HTML programming easy introduction [2020]


The World Wide Web is an exciting new medium, bringing information, images advertising and what not to every desktop. Do you know that everything that you see on the Web is documents written in special language called HTML and it is called HTML programming. HTML stands for Hypertext Markup Language. It is an improved version of Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML). Tim Berners-Lee at Cen Switzerland designed the original HTML document type in 1990. In 1992, Dan Connolly wrote the “HTML Document Type” and a brief HTML specification Since 1993, varied cross sections of people have contributed towards the evolution of the HTML specification and, in 1994, Dan Connolly and Karen Olson Muldrow rewrote the HTML specification.

HTML and its Capabilities

HTML plays an important role in bringing you the Web pages. HTML and the Web were first conceived in 1989 by Tim Berners-Lee who worked for CERN (Conseil European pour la Recherche Nucleaire). HTML is a document-layout and hyperlink-specification language i.e., a language used to assign the layout of a document and to specify the hyperlinks. HTML tells the browser how to display the content of a hypertext document i.e., a document including text, images and other support media. The language also tells how to make a document interactive through special hyperlinks. Though HTML is a language that supports multimedia and new page layout features yet it has its limitations. HTML is a page-layout and hyperlink specification language.

HTML Tools

HTML requires three tools to create and view an HTML document. These are:

A Text Editor – Text editor are programs that are used to create or compose HTML documents. Examples are  Notepad, WordPad, MS-Word

Web browser – Web browser are used to display and view the HTML documents. Exampes are Internet Explorer, Mozilla FireFox, etc.

Web server-  These are required when you want to store the HTML document.

Basic structure

HTML programming

HTML documents consist of text interspersed with a series of tags which are used for formatting. Each tag begins with a left angle bracket (<), is followed by a directive along with any desired parameters, and concludes with a right-angle bracket (>). Many directives have both starting and ending tags. The ending tag often looks like the starting tag except that it begins with a slash (/). HTML is not case sensitive.

All html documents should begin with the <html> tag and end with the </html> tag. These tags identify the document as having been written in html. The html document is composed of two sections: the head and the body. These sections are identified by <head>, </head> and <body>, </body>. The head contains general information about the document. The body contains information which is a part of the document. Certain elements are allowed in the head (such as the title). Other elements are only allowed in the body.

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